The Igbo people also pronounced as Ibo Tribe, natively called Ṇ́dị́ Ìgbò are an ethnic clan of Biafra to the present-day south-central and south eastern Nigeria Geographically, the Igbo homeland is divided into two unequal sections by the Niger River – an eastern (which is the larger of the two) and a western section where you have a sub-Igbo clan such as Igbanke, Ukwuani , Ikah, Agbor e.t.c. The Igbo people are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa with different unique Igbo dialect.
The Igbo language is divided into numerous regional dialects, and somewhat mutually intelligible with the larger "Igbo" cluster. The Igbo homeland straddles the lower Niger River, east and south of the Edo and Idoma groups, and west of the Ibibios (Cross River) cluster.
In rural Nigeria, Igbo people work mostly as craftsmen, farmers and traders. The most important crop is the yam. Other staple crops include cassava and Palm fruit, taro (Colocasia esculenta). The Igbos are also highly urbanized, with some of the largest metropolitan areas, cities and towns in Igboland being Onitsha, Enugu, Aba, Owerri, Orlu, Okigwe, Port Harcourt, Asaba, Awka, Nsukka, Nnewi, Umuahia, Abakaliki, Afikpo, Agbor, Benue and Arochukwu. Small ethnic Igbo populations are found in Southern part of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea as well. For more information about the Igbo people, see…. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igbo_people
The Ijaw people also pronounced as Izon Tribe are an ethnic clan of Biafra to the present-day south-south and Ondo state of south western Nigeria Geographically, Many are found as migrant fishermen in camps as far west as Sierra Leone and as far east as Gabon. Population figures for the Ijaw vary greatly. They have long lived in locations near many sea trade routes, and they were well connected to other areas by trade as early as the 15th century
There are two prominent groupings of the Izon language. The first, termed either Western or Central Izon (Ijaw) consists of Western Ijaw speakers: Tuomo Clan, Ekeremor, Sagbama (Mein), Bassan, Apoi, Arogbo, Boma (Bumo), Kabo (Kabuowei), Ogboin, Tarakiri, and Kolokuma-Opokuma. Nembe, Brass and Akassa (Akaha) dialects represent Southeast Ijaw (Izon).. Buseni and Okordia dialects are considered Inland Ijaw.
The other major Ijaw linguistic group is Kalabari. Kalabari is considered an Eastern Ijaw language but the term "Eastern Ijaw" is not the normal nomenclature. Kalabari is the name of one of the Ijaw clans that reside on the eastern side of the Niger-Delta (Abonnema, Buguma, Bakana, Degema etc.) who form a major group in Rivers State, Other "Eastern" Ijaw clans are the Andoni, Okrika, Ibani (the natives of Bonny, Finima and Opobo) and Nkoroo. They are neighbours to the Kalabari people in present-day Rivers State, Nigeria.
Other related Ijaw subgroups which have distinct languages but very close kinship, cultural and territorial ties with the rest of the Ijaw are the Epie-Atissa, Engenni (also known as Ẹgẹnẹ), and Degema (also called Udekama or Udekaama). The Ogbia clan, as well as residents of Bukuma and Abuloma (Obulom). For more information about the Igbo people, see…. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ijaw_people
The Urhobos are people located in ethnic clan of Biafra to the present-day south-south and Nigeria Geographically, The Urhobo are the major ethnic group in Delta State, one of the 36 states of Nigeria.
The word Urhobo refers to a group of people rather than a territory. Population figures for the Urhobo vary greatly. The Urhobo people live in a territory bounded by latitudes 6°and 5°, 15° North and Longitudes 5°, 40° and 6°, 25° East in the Delta and the Bayelsa States of Nigeria. Their neighbors are the Isoko to the Southeast, the Itsekiri and Ijaw to the West, the Binis, to the North, the Ijaw to the South. Urhobo territory consists of evergreen forests with many oil palm trees.
The territory is covered by a network of streams, whose volume and flow are directly affected by the seasons. The rain season is traditionally from April to October, and dry season ranges from November to March.
The majority of the Urhobo people reside in the Southwestern states of Delta and Bayelsa in Nigeria, Ofoni is an Urhobo community in Sagbama, Local Government Area, in Bayelsa. Many Urhobos live in small and major cities in regions or local government areas in Ughelli, Warri, Abraka, Orerokpe and Sapele. Some Urhobo major cities and towns include Okparabe, Arhavwarien, Warri, Sapele, Abraka and Ughelli.
The Isoko people are ethnic clan of Biafra to the present-day south-south, Delta State as constituted in Nigeria. This region used to be a part of the defunct "Mid-West Region". It later became part of Bendel State, before Bendel State was split to form Edo and Delta states.
Isoko region is in the tropical rain forest area of the Niger-delta. The region experiences high rainfall and high humidity most of the year. The climate is equatorial and is marked by two distinct seasons. The Dry and Rainy seasons. The Dry season lasts from about November to April and is significantly marked by the cool "harmarttan" dusty haze from the north-east winds. The Rainy season spans May to October with a brief dry spell in August.
The main economic activity is food crop farming. And the staple food crops include cassava and yams. There is also the widespread production of palm oil and palm kernels. Limited amount of hunting and fishing is also done. Women form a large proportion of the farming population. They also engage in trade of food crops for cash to meet other basic household needs. On market days, it is common to see Isoko women peddling their assorted goods around neighboring villages.
Cassava is the source of most of the foods consumed by the Isoko people. Garri, starch meal (Ozi), Egu are cassava derivatives.
Food crop production has been declining rapidly recently. This has been largely attributed to soil damage resulting from frequent crude oil spills from pipelines belonging to some of the major oil producing companies
The Idoma people are ethno-linguistic clan of Biafra, inhabiting the lower western areas of the present-day Benue state as constituted in Nigeria. And kindred groups can be found in Cross Rivers State, Enugu State and Nasarawa State.
The Idoma language is classified in the Akweya subgroup of the Idomoid languages of the Volta–Niger family, which include Alago, Agatu, Etulo and Yala languages of Benue, Nasarawa and Northern Cross river states. The Akweya subgroup is closely related to the Yatye-Akpa sub-group. The bulk of the territory is inland, south of river Benue, some seventy-two kilometers east of its confluence with river Niger. The Idomas are known to be 'warriors' and 'hunters' of class, but hospitable and peace-loving.
The most famous traditional dance of the Idoma people is known as Ogirinya dance. It is a highly energetic dance that requires jumping (at regular intervals) on the toes in short period of time. A video of the Ogirinya dance can be viewed in this link and this link. Dancers putting on the Idoma attire (traditional colours) can be seen in both links.
With the advent of Christianity, Islam, and other foreign religions, the traditional belief systems of most ethnic groups in the country has been influenced by western practices. However, a majority of the Idoma people still believe strongly in the Alekwu , which is seen as the ancestral spirits- a link between the living and the dead. They host an annual ‘Aje Alekwu’ festival where traditional religious practitioner’s commune and make sacrifices in worship of their ancestors across the land. The Idomas have strong attachment to the Alekwu-spirit of the ancestors which is believed to stand as an invisible watchdog of the family and communities while checkmating vices like adultery, theft and murder
The Idoma people are ethnic clan of Biafra, inhabiting predominantly inhabiting in Akwa Ibom state lower western areas of the present-day Nigeria. And is made up of the related Anaang community, the Ibibio community and the Eket and Oron communities
During the Nigerian Civil War, the Eastern Nigeria region which was part component of Biafra as at then was split into three states. Southeastern State of Nigeria was where the Ibibio were located, one of the original twelve states of Nigeria) after Nigerian independence. The Efik, Anaang, Oron, Eket and their brothers and sisters of the Ogoja District, were also in the Southeastern State. The state (Southeastern State) was later renamed Cross Rivers State. On 23 September 1987, by Military Decree No.24, Akwa Ibom State was carved out of the then Cross Rivers State as a separate state. Cross Rivers State remains as one of neighbouring states. Southwestern Cameroon was a part of present Cross River State and Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. During the then Eastern Region of Nigeria it got partitioned into Cameroon in a 1961 plebiscite. This resulted in the Ibibio, Efik, and Annang being divided between Nigeria and Cameroon.
Traditionally Ibibio society consists of communities that are made up of Large Families with blood affinity each ruled by their Constitutional and Religious Head known as the Ikpaisong'.
The Obong Ikpaisong ruled with the Mbong Ekpuk (Head of the Families)which together with the Heads of the Cults and Societies constitute the 'Afe or Asan or Esop Ikpaisong' (Traditional Council or Traditional Shrine or Traditional Court'). The decisions or orders of the Traditional Council or the Obong Ikpaisong were enforced by members of the Ekpo or Obon society who act as messengers of the spirits and the military and police of the Community. Ekpo members are always masked when performing their policing duties, and although their identities are almost always known, fear of retribution from the ancestors prevents most people from accusing those members who overstep their social boundaries, effectively committing police brutality. Membership is open to all Ibibio males, but one must have access to wealth to move into the politically influential grades. The Obon society with its strong enticing traditional musical prowess, with popular acceptability, openly executes its mandates with musical procession and popular participation by members which comprises children, youth, adults and very brave elderly women.
Ibibio religion was of two dimensions, which centered on the pouring of libation, worship, consultation, communication and invocation of the God of Heaven (Abasi Enyong) and God of the Earth (Abasi Isong) by the Constitutional and Religious King/Head of a particular Ibibio Community who was known from the ancient times as the Obong-Ikpaisong (the word 'Obong Ikpaisong' directly interpreted means King of the Principalities of the Earth' or 'King of the Earth and the Principalities' or Traditional Ruler)
The masks and accoutrements of the Ekpo society make up the greatest works of art in Ibibio society. Drumming and music are also important elements in Ekpe ceremonies. The wooden sculpture from this area is also very detailed, and artists are just as likely to capture beauty as they are the hideous forms of evil spirits.
The Igala people are ethnic clan of Biafra, inhabiting the Kabba province in Kogi state area of the present-day Nigeria. The first "Ata", the title given to the ruler of the kingdom, was Ebule- Jonu, a woman; she was succeeded by her brother Agana- Poje, the father of Idoko. Idoko would later succeed him as Ata, and had two children Atiyele and Ayegba om'Idoko (Ayegba son of Idoko), Atiyele the first son of Idoko migrated eastward of the kingdom to establish Ankpa kingdom while Ayegba the second son of Idoko succeeded his father as Ata'Gala.
The Igala mega state attained the height of its fame during the mid-17th century. The rise of the Igala mega state disrupted and contributed to the shift of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade from the Bight of Benin to the Bight of Biafra and the decline of the Benin Empire between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The Idah-Benin war (1515-1516) was a war of mutual independence.
The Igala state reached its political and commercial supremacy afterwards, when it became a leading exporter of choral beads, horses, medicine.
The Ijekri (also called the Isekiri, Iteskiri, Itsekri, Ishekiri, or Itsekhiri) are a Biafra clan inhabiting the present-day Delta State of Nigeria. Significant communities of Itsekiris can be found in parts of Edo and Ondo states.
The Itsekiris traditionally refer to their land as the Kingdom of Warri or 'Iwerre' as its proper name – which is geographically contiguous to the area covered by the three Warri local government districts. The area is a key centre of Nigeria's crude oil and natural gas production and petroleum refining and the main town Warri (a multi-ethnic metropolis) forms the industrial and commercial nucleus of the Delta State region.